In light of the rapidly changing coronavirus (COVID-19) situation, Troutman Sanders and Pepper Hamilton have postponed the effective date of their previously announced merger until July 1, 2020. The new firm – Troutman Pepper – will feature 1,100+ attorneys across 23 U.S. offices. Read more.
These FAQs have been revised as of March 29, 2020.
As the COVID-19 coronavirus continues to present challenges to employers worldwide, we have created this frequently asked questions document to answer some of the most common questions we have been hearing from clients, friends and family members. This general FAQ is applicable as of March 29, 2020. The COVID-19 situation is changing rapidly, and we will make every effort to update this document with applicable information when appropriate. If you have any questions, please contact any member of the Pepper Hamilton Labor and Employment Practice Group or the COVID-19 Response Team.
The information below incorporates guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), but is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.
What should an employer do if an employee comes to work exhibiting coronavirus symptoms? (Revised March 29, 2020)
If an employee comes to work displaying coronavirus symptoms (fever, shortness of breath, cough or other flu-like symptoms), stay calm. Immediately separate the employee from other employees, and send the employee home until the employee has been fever-free without the use of fever-reducing medications for at least three full days (72 hours); the employee’s other symptoms (e.g., cough, shortness of breath) have improved; and either at least seven days have passed since the employee’s symptoms first appeared or, if the employee is tested to determine if the employee is still contagious, and the employee has received two negative tests in a row, at least 24 hours apart. If the employee came into close physical contact with other employees during their time in the workplace (i.e., a distance of less than six feet for several minutes), send those employees home to self-quarantine for 14 days. If any of those employees develop symptoms they should remain at home until they have been fever-free without the use of fever-reducing medications for at least three full days (72 hours); the employee’s other symptoms (e.g., cough, shortness of breath) have improved; and either at least seven days have passed since the employee’s symptoms first appeared or, if the employee is tested to determine if the employee is still contagious, and the employee has received two negative tests in a row, at least 24 hours apart. Employers should also conduct a deep clean of the ill/potentially ill employee’s workspace.Be sure to stay up to date on the latest recommendations of the CDC and local health authorities.
What should an employer do if an employee is diagnosed with COVID-19 or a presumptive case of COVID-19? (Revised March 29, 2020)
In the unlikely event the employee is at work when the employee receives the news, send the employee home immediately and follow the procedures outlined above. If the employee is not in the workplace, notify all potentially impacted employees of their potential exposure — meaning all employees who were in close contact with the infected employee (within six feet for several minutes) during the prior 14 days, and then send those employees home to self-quarantine for a period of at least 14 days. Employers should also conduct a deep clean of the diagnosed/potentially diagnosed employee’s workspace. Employers should not reveal the identity of the infected employee unless the infected employee has provided permission to share his or her name. Like with any illness, the reason for an employee’s absence is confidential and should not be shared with others. Depending on the nature of your workplace, you may also want to inform any potentially exposed customers, vendors and/or other building tenants.
What should a business do if an employee informs an employer that the employee has come in contact with an individual diagnosed with COVID-19 or a presumptive case of COVID-19? (Revised March 29, 2020)
Follow the same steps as above. Send the employee home to self-quarantine for 14 days and, if they develop symptoms, until the employee has been fever-free without the use of fever-reducing medications for at least three full days (72 hours); the employee’s other symptoms (e.g., cough, shortness of breath) have improved; and either at least seven days have passed since the employee’s symptoms first appeared or, if the employee is tested to determine if the employee is still contagious, and the employee has received two negative tests in a row, at least 24 hours apart. You should follow the same course of action with any employees with whom the reporting employee came in close contact over the prior 14 days.
What should an employer do if an employee wants to wear a face mask in the workplace? (Revised March 29, 2020)
This is generally up to the employer. Employers are free to permit employees to wear face masks at work, but some employers may not want employees to wear face masks — particularly if the employees are in customer-facing roles. Unless an employee has another disability that requires the use of a mask or is working in the health care field with COVID-19 patients, an employer can safely prohibit the use of masks in the workplace. However, if the employer does not have a business reason to prohibit the face mask and it makes the employee feel safe, there is no requirement to prohibit it either.
Can employers take employee temperatures at work? (Revised March 18, 2020)
Yes. Per the EEOC in a Q&A issued on March 18, 2020: “Generally, measuring an employee's body temperature is a medical examination. Because the CDC and state/local health authorities have acknowledged community spread of COVID-19 and issued attendant precautions, employers may measure employees' body temperature. However, employers should be aware that some people with COVID-19 do not have a fever.”
Can we make thermometers available to employees for them to voluntarily take their temperature?
Yes, provided it is purely voluntary. Employers should not record employee temperatures. Employers should also provide sufficient tools to make sure thermometers are properly sanitized to lower the risk of passing infection to other employees.
How should I handle employee medical information?
If an employer receives confidential medical information about an employee, the employer should take all reasonable steps to protect the privacy and medical information of the employee. In general, employers are required to maintain all information about employee illnesses as a confidential medical record. If employers have hardcopy or electronic copies of employee medical files, those files should be kept separate from the employee’s other personnel records, and access to the medical records should be limited. These files should be kept in a secure, locked filing cabinet or a password-protected electronic file.
Where else can I get workplace safety tips?
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has published Guidance on Preparing Workplaces for COVID-19.
Is COVID-19 a disability under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)?
Maybe. Under the ADA, a disability is (1) a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, (2) a record of such impairment, or (3) being regarded as having an impairment. A normal, uncomplicated case of COVID-19 (similar to the flu) is unlikely to be considered a “disability” within the meaning of the ADA because it is unlikely to limit one or more major life activities and is typically transitory. Should an employee develop pneumonia or begin to have issues with breathing, COVID-19 might be considered a disability. However, it is likely that those with COVID-19 will be “regarded” as having an impairment. The standard for establishing a disability is low, so employers would be wise to treat COVID-19 as a disability and focus their efforts on what needs to be done with respect to that disability.
Can an employer terminate an employee because they have coronavirus or if the employer believes they have coronavirus?
No. You cannot discipline, terminate or otherwise discriminate against an employee simply because he or she has an actual or presumptive case of COVID-19.
Can an employer require older/disabled/pregnant employees to work from home given that COVID-19 may present a higher risk to certain segments of the population?
No. Employers cannot treat people differently based on their age, pregnancy, whether they have an underlying health condition or any other protected category, such as national origin. Employers should require people to work from home only if they require it for everyone in the employee’s job class or if the employee advises that he or she is sick or has been exposed to the virus. If an employee asks to work from home because he or she is in a high-risk category as defined by the CDC, such as having an underlying health condition, pregnancy or being over age 60, then the employer may (but is not required to) grant that request.
How could COVID-19 implicate employer nondiscrimination policies? (Revised March 18, 2020)
COVID-19 originated in China and, sadly, there have been reports of mistreatment and harassment of Asian Americans and other people of Asian descent. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination against individuals based on national origin. Employers cannot discriminate against employees based on where they are from or whether they have ancestors from a particular country. Employers should also be on the alert for co-workers who may make inappropriate or harassing comments to Asian employees and strictly enforce nondiscrimination and anti-harassment policies.
Can we require an employee to provide a note from a doctor’s office if the employee is out of work due to an illness?
Yes, if this is your typical policy or practice and you follow that policy or practice consistently. However, the CDC and other government agencies are suggesting that employers consider waiving the requirement to provide doctor’s notes because they anticipate that health care providers will be inundated with requests for those notes.
If an employee is unable to come to work because his or her child’s school is closed, do I have to hold his or her job? (Revised March 19, 2020)
Yes. The Families First Coronavirus Response Act was signed by President Trump on March 18 and will become effective on April 1. If you have fewer than 500 employees and the employee has been employed for at least 30 days, amendments to the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), called the Emergency Family and Medical Leave Expansion Act (EFMLA), will expand the coverage of the FMLA to allow up to 12 weeks of partially-paid job-protected FMLA leave to be used for employees who are unable to work or telework because they need to care for a child whose school or place of care has been closed or whose childcare provider is unavailable, due to coronavirus. The first 10 days of EFMLA leave is unpaid (but will likely be covered by the Emergency Paid Sick Leave Act discussed below). After 10 days, an employer must provide paid leave to employees for the balance of their up to twelve total weeks of leave at an amount not less than two-thirds of the employee’s regular rate of pay based upon the number of hours the employee would normally be expected to work. However, employers are not required to pay more than $200 per day and $10,000 in the aggregate.
If an employee is unable to work because the employee or an immediate family member has COVID-19, is the employee entitled to be paid during his or her leave of absence? (Revised March 19, 2020)
It depends. Your employees might be entitled to pay under a state or local paid sick leave law if they work in a state or locality that has such a law. If an employee has sick leave or other paid time off available under your policies, they should be able to use that time during their absence. Some employers also have decided to offer a supplemental bank of paid leave days. In addition, on March 18, President Trump signed the Families First Coronavirus Response Act (which becomes effective on April 1), a law that includes the Emergency Paid Sick Leave Act (EPSLA). Under the EPSLA, employers with fewer than 500 employees will have to provide 80 hours of paid sick leave to full-time employees (and a prorated number of days to part-time employees). Under the legislation, employees would be able to take 80 hours of paid leave at their regular rate of pay or the minimum wage, whichever is greater, if they are unable to work or telework because they (1) are subject to a quarantine or isolation order, (2) have been advised by a healthcare provider to quarantine, or (3) are experiencing symptoms or seeking a medical diagnosis of coronavirus, or pay at two-thirds of their regular rate or the minimum wage, whichever is greater, to (1) care for an individual for such purposes; (2) care for a child because the child’s school or place of care has been closed or because the childcare provider is unavailable due to coronavirus; or (3) the “employee is experiencing any other substantially similar condition specified by the Secretary of Health and Human Services in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury and the Secretary of Labor.” Paid leave is limited to $511/day or $5,110 in the aggregate for those instances when employees are entitled to pay at their regular rates, and to $200/day or $2,000 in the aggregate for those instances when employees are entitled to pay at two-thirds of their regular rate. After exhausting the 10 days of paid leave under the Emergency Paid Sick Leave Act, those employees who cannot work or telework because they need to care for a child because the child’s school or place of care has been closed or because the childcare provider is unavailable will be entitled under the Emergency Family and Medical Leave Expansion Act to be paid for the balance of their up to 12 weeks leave, at two-thirds of their regular rate, as described above.
Do we need to pay employees who are being quarantined, whether mandatory or self-quarantine, or who are sick? What about employees who are caring for a sick family member? (Revised March 29, 2020)
Leaving aside the issue of paid sick leave and paid leave under Families First Coronavirus Response Act, whether an employer is obligated to pay workers who are not at work depends on whether the employee is classified as exempt or nonexempt. A nonexempt worker (i.e., someone who is eligible for overtime pay), must only be paid for actual time worked. Generally, exempt employees must be paid in full-week increments. So, if the business closes and the employee has worked any time at all in that week, the exempt employee must be paid for the full week. The employer may require the exempt employees to take vacation and debit their leave bank account, provided the employees receive in payment an amount equal to their guaranteed salary. There are some exceptions to the general rule that exempt employees must be paid in full-week increments. For example, an employer is not required to pay an exempt employee when the employee is absent from work for a whole day because he or she is sick and has exhausted all permitted paid sick days under an established sick leave policy, or when the employee is on leave under the FMLA. In addition, an employer does not have to pay an exempt employee when an employee is absent from work for a whole day because of personal issues that are not because of the employee’s own sickness or disability, such as if they are having issues with public transportation or childcare issues. However, as explained in a recent Client Alert, employees may be eligible for paid leave under the Families First Coronavirus Response Act.
If we become short-staffed due to the pandemic, can we ask employees to volunteer to help out?
No. The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) has strict requirements with respect to volunteers, and employees may not waive their right to be paid for time worked. There are certain exceptions when the employee is volunteering to do something that is other than his or her normal work, such as at an outside community service event, volunteer day or pro bono work. The work must be purely voluntary, take place outside of regular work hours, and participation may not bring direct economic benefit to the business.
Are workers affected by the coronavirus eligible for unemployment compensation benefits? (Revised March 29, 2020)
Yes. See our recent Client Alert on this issue.
How can an employer plan for an instance where the employer has too few employees?
Employers need to consider what they will do if there are large numbers of employees who cannot come to work because (1) they have COVID-19, (2) a family member has COVID-19, or (3) they are otherwise unable to get to work because public transportation or schools have closed. Now is the time for employers to determine which positions and functions in an organization are critical to operations and how an employer will operate with limited staff. An employer may need to consider taking steps like (1) adjusting schedules to ensure essential functions are completed, (2) giving employees different work assignments, (3) extending hours or requiring mandatory overtime from healthy employees, if necessary, and (4) requiring employees to work at different locations if the employer has multiple locations. If an employer needs assistance with planning, the EEOC issued guidance during the H1N1 pandemic in 2009 that provides an “ADA-Compliant Pre-Pandemic Employee Survey” permitting employers to question employees about their ability to get to work in the event of a pandemic.
How can an employer plan for an instance where the employer has too many employees?
If COVID-19 leads to a drop in business due to a disruption in the supply chain or reduced demand, an employer may need to make tough decisions regarding their employee rosters. Employers may consider furloughing employers. In such a case, employers would lay off employees (without pay) for a brief period of time. Employers can also consider reducing pay for some or all employees to avoid furloughs — however, some states have laws that require employers to provide employees with a certain amount of notice prior to a reduction in pay. Unfortunately, some employers may need to consider permanently reducing their workforce and terminating employees. If an employer is required to take this step, it should consider whether it will provide any severance and whether it will need to comply with federal or state WARN Acts — although the federal WARN Act (and many mini state WARN Acts) include exceptions for disasters and unforeseeable business circumstances.
What should an employer do if a healthy employee is scared to come to work because of fears about COVID-19?
Under the Occupational Safety and Health Act, employees can refuse to work if “imminent danger” exists. The “imminent danger” threshold is a difficult threshold to meet as it requires objective evidence of imminent death or physical harm. This is unlikely to be the case in most work environments, but employers should examine each workplace on a case-by-case basis. Employers should also be careful if employees act/protest together in an effort to avoid certain work tasks due to fears of the virus. This activity could be considered engagement in protected concerted activity and protected by the National Labor Relations Act. If an employer punishes this type of concerted activity, the employer could face an unfair labor practice charge.
Can an employer require employees to telecommute?
Yes. An employer may encourage or require employees to telecommute to control the spread of the virus. Many companies are making plans to have at least some of their workforce telecommute in the event that the virus impacts their ability to come to work, and some employers already have mandated a telecommuting practice. Additionally, allowing a sick employee to work remotely in lieu of taking time off may be considered a reasonable accommodation for a disability under the ADA if the employee can perform the essential functions of his or her job while telecommuting. Note, however, that the ADA does not require employers to lower quality or productivity standards as a reasonable accommodation.
What issues should I be thinking about when putting in place a telecommuting arrangement?
There are several issues and processes that you will need to institute to ensure that a remote work arrangement is successful. For example, nonexempt employees must be paid at least minimum wage for time worked and overtime for hours worked over 40 in a workweek (or as otherwise required by state law). Therefore, it will be important to determine a way to track all time worked by your nonexempt workforce while they are working remotely so that you can ensure that you are paying them accurately. Employers also will want to put a process in place to ensure that meal and rest breaks are taken in states where these breaks are mandatory. Other considerations include ensuring that employees have the proper equipment to perform their jobs from home; setting performance expectations regarding work schedules, responsiveness, productivity and communication; ensuring that appropriate protections for confidentiality and data security are in place; and discussing with employees whether they have the appropriate setup for a work-from-home arrangement, especially if the need arises on short notice. In some states, such as California, an employee may be eligible for reimbursement of business expenses, such as internet charges, supplies, etc.
The material in this publication was created as of the date set forth above and is based on laws, court decisions, administrative rulings and congressional materials that existed at that time, and should not be construed as legal advice or legal opinions on specific facts. The information in this publication is not intended to create, and the transmission and receipt of it does not constitute, a lawyer-client relationship.